Abstract – Effect of Cannabinoids

Over the past years, several lines of evidence support an antitumourigenic effect of cannabinoids including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), synthetic agonists, endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid transport or degradation inhibitors. Indeed, cannabinoids possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects and they are known to interfere with tumour neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion and metastasization.

However, the clinical use of Δ(9)-THC and additional cannabinoid agonists is often limited by their unwanted psychoactive side effects, and for this reason interest in non-psychoactive cannabinoid compounds with structural affinity for Δ(9)-THC, such as cannabidiol (CBD), has substantially increased in recent years. The present review will focus on the efficacy of CBD in the modulation of different steps of tumourigenesis in several types of cancer and highlights the importance of exploring CBD/CBD analogues as alternative therapeutic agents.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22506672

 

General Facts About Hemp-Derived CBD

CBD From Hemp Oil Is Legal

When CBD oil is derived from hemp and manufactured under the auspices of a state approved farm such as Ananda Hemp, it is legal in all 50 states and in 45 countries. Although some medical marijuana companies are selling CBD oil derived from marijuana plants, the truth is marijuana remains a Schedule 1 drug (no legitimate medical use) under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. However,  CBD hemp oil is a completely safe and legal route for those seeking an alternative medical treatment.

CBD Oil Is Non-Psychoactive

Cannabinoids do not cause a psychoactive reaction, whether if it is derived from medical marijuana plants or its sister, the hemp plant. Cannabinoids and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) act on entirely different highways within the body, which lead to quite mixed results for the patient. Unlike THC, CBD oil does not cause changes to heart rate, blood pressure, or body temperature. It also doesn’t increase hunger or drowsiness as those familiar with the side effects of medical marijuana may have experienced. Continue reading “General Facts About Hemp-Derived CBD”

Herbal Cannabinoids

Herbal cannabinoids are nearly insoluble in water but soluble in lipids, alcohols and other non-polar organic solvents. All herbal cannabinoids are derived from their respective 2-carboxylic acids (2-COOH) by decarboxylation that is, catalyzed by heat, light, or alkaline conditions. Herbal cannabinoids occur naturally only in the cannabis plant, and are concentrated in a viscous resin that is produced in glandular structures known as trichomes. In addition to cannabinoids, the resin is rich in terpenes, which are largely responsible for the odor of the cannabis plant.

There are over ninety known herbal cannabinoids. Of these, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most prevalent and have received the most attention.

CBD is not psychoactive, and appears to mediate the euphoric effect of THC. It may decrease the rate of THC clearance from the body, perhaps by interfering with the metabolism of THC in the liver. Medically, it appears to relieve convulsion, inflammation, anxiety, and nausea. CBD has a greater affinity for the CB2 receptor than for the CB1 receptor. It is perceived to have more effect on the torso than on the brain or CNS. Continue reading “Herbal Cannabinoids”

Cannabinoids

The majority of pharmaceutical and academic research & development activities being performed with cannabis revolves around the understanding of its biologically active ingredients, the Cannabinoids

Currently there are 90+ cannabinoids that have been isolated from cannabis, each affecting the body’s cannabinoid receptors and responsible for unique pharmacological effects.

There are three general types of cannabinoids: herbal cannabinoids which occur uniquely in the cannabis, endogenous cannabinoids produced in the bodies of humans and animals and synthetic cannabinoids produced in the laboratory.

Cannabinoid Receptors

Before the 1980s, it was often speculated that cannabinoids produced their effects through nonspecific interaction with cell membranes, instead of interacting with specific receptors. The discovery of the first cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s helped to clarify their role. These receptors are common in animals, and have been found in mammals, birds, fish and reptiles. There are currently two known types of cannabinoid receptors, called CB1 and CB2. Continue reading “Cannabinoids”